In November of 1968, Michel Bongrand of France and Joseph Napolitan of the United States invited a handful of veteran political campaign managers from fifteen countries to meet in Paris to exchange information and opinions about the emerging profession of political consulting. At the end of the two-day meeting, they decided to formalize their professional interests by organizing the International Association of Political Consultants (IAPC). The organization they founded has endured and prospered for over four decades. Today, some 180 men and women representing a broad spectrum of professional political activities are active members. The great majority of them have played significant roles in electing the heads of state in the world’s democracies.
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